Instructions for Authors

Instructions for Authors

The Open Transportation Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes Research articles, Reviews and Letters in the field of transportation, aiming at providing the most complete and reliable source of information on current developments in the field.

Each peer-reviewed article that is published in a Bentham OPEN Journal is universally and freely accessible via the Internet in an easily readable and printable PDF format.

ONLINE MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION:

An online submission and tracking service via Internet facilitates a speedy and cost-effective submission of manuscripts. The full manuscript has to be submitted online via Bentham's Journals Management System (JMS) at http://jms.eurekaselect.com/journals/totj/ View Instructions

Authors should ONLY submit their articles directly through our online system as we do not accept articles through intermediary companies or agents.

Manuscripts must be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript, and should not be submitted by anyone on their behalf. The principal/corresponding author will be required to submit a Covering Letter along with the manuscript, on behalf of all the co-authors (if any). The author(s) will confirm that the manuscript (or any part of it) has not been published previously or is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Furthermore, any illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained.

For all online submissions, please provide soft copies of all the materials (main text in MS Word or Tex/LaTeX), figures / illustrations in TIFF, PDF or JPEG, and chemical structures drawn in ChemDraw (CDX) / ISISDraw (TGF) as separate files, while a PDF version of the entire manuscript must also be included, embedded with all the figures / illustrations / tables / chemical structures etc. It is advisable that the document files related to a manuscript submission should always have the name of the corresponding author as part of the file name, i.e., "Cilli MS text.doc" , "Cilli MS Figure 1", etc.

It is imperative that before submission, authors should carefully proofread the files for special characters, mathematical symbols, Greek letters, equations, tables and images, to ensure that they appear in proper format.

References, figures, tables, structures etc. should be referred to in the text at the place where they have been discussed. Figure legends/caption should also be provided.

A successful electronic submission of a manuscript will be followed by a system-generated acknowledgement to the principal/corresponding author within 72 hours of the dispatch of the manuscript. Any questions with regards to the preparation of and submission of your manuscript to the journal should be addressed to totj@benthamopen.org and copied to info@benthamopen.com

NOTE: Any queries therein should be addressed to oa@benthamopen.com and copied to Jalil@benthamopen.com

Editorial Policies:

The editorial policies of Bentham OPEN on publication ethics, peer-review, plagiarism, copyrights/ licenses, errata/corrections and article retraction/ withdrawal can be viewed at Policy Page. Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the work is properly cited.

Copyright Letter:

It is a mandatory requirement that a signed copyright letter also be submitted along with the manuscript by the author to whom correspondence is to be addressed, delineating the scope of the submitted article declaring the potential competing interests, acknowledging contributions from authors and funding agencies, and certifying that the paper is prepared according to the 'Instructions for Authors'. All inconsistencies in the text and in the reference section, and any typographical errors must be carefully checked and corrected before the submission of the manuscript. The article contains no such material or information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated, plagiarized, or which would, if published, in any way whatsoever, violate the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. The authors acknowledge that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors for any such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. Download the Copyright Letter

Manuscripts Published:

The journal accepts original research articles, review articles and letters written in English. Single topic/thematic issues may also be considered for publication.

Supplement/Single Topic Issues:

The journal also considers Supplements/Single topic issues for publication. The Guest Edited Thematic Issues are published free of charge.

A Supplement/Single topic will be a collection of articles (minimum of 6, maximum of 20 articles) based on a contemporary theme or topic of great importance to the field. Mini-supplements consisting of between 3 to 5 articles are also welcome. The Guest Editors' main editorial task is to invite the contributors to the Supplement and to manage the peer review of submitted manuscripts. A short summary or proposal for editing a supplement should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief at e-mail to specialissue@benthamopen.org.

Conference Proceedings:

For proposals to publish conference proceedings in this journal, please contact us at email: proceedings@benthamopen.org.

Manuscript Preparation:

The manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the manuscript.

Our contracted service provider Eureka Science can, if needed, provide professional assistance to authors for the improvement of English language and figures in manuscripts.

Manuscript Length:

Research Articles:

Research articles should be of 4000-6000 words with 75 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

Review Articles:

The length of a published comprehensive review article is from 35000 to 40000 words with 100 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables etc.

Letter Articles:

Letters should be 3000-6000 words with 40 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

Open Access Book Reviews:

This journal publishes open access reviews on recently published books (both print and electronic) relevant to the journal. Publishers and authors of books are invited to contact our book reviews editor at totj@benthamopen.org with book review requests. All submitted books will be reviewed by an independent expert in the field.

MANUSCRIPT SECTIONS FOR PAPERS:

Manuscripts submitted for research and review articles in the respective journal should be divided into the following sections:

  • Title
  • Structured Abstract
  • Text Organization
  • Conclusion
  • List of Abbreviations (if any)
  • Consent for Publication
  • Glossary
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Figures/Illustrations
  • Chemical Structures (if any)
  • Tables and Captions (if any)
  • Supportive/Supplementary Material (if any)

Title:

The title should be precise and brief and must not be more than 120 characters. Authors should avoid the use of non standard abbreviations and question marks in titles. The title must be written in title case except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.

Authors should also provide a short ‘running title’. Title, running title, by line correspondent footnote and key words should be written as presented in the original manuscript.

Structured Abstract:

The abstract of an article should be its clear, concise and accurate summary, having no more than 250 words, and including the explicit sub-headings (as in-line or run-in headings in bold). Use of abbreviations should be avoided and the references should not be cited in the abstract. Ideally, each abstract should include the following sub-headings, but these may vary according to requirements of the article.

  • Background
  • Objective
  • Method
  • Results
  • Conclusion

Keywords:

6 to 8 keywords must be provided. Choose important and relevant keywords that researchers in your field will be searching for so that your paper will appear in a database search. In biomedical fields, MeSH terms are a good ‘common vocabulary’ source to draw keywords from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html.

Text Organization:

The main text should begin on a separate page and should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the List of Abbreviations (if any), Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements and Reference sections. For review, the manuscript should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the Acknowledgements and Reference sections. For Research Articles the manuscript should begin with the title page and abstract followed by the main text, which must be structured into separate sections as Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements and References. The Review Article should mention any previous important recent and old reviews in the field and contain a comprehensive discussion starting with the general background of the field. It should then go on to discuss the salient features of recent developments. The authors should avoid presenting material which has already been published in a previous review. The authors are advised to present and discuss their observations in brief. The manuscript style must be uniform throughout the text and 10 pt Times New Roman fonts should be used. The full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the text. Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases. Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be italicized e.g.per se, et al., etc.

Section Headings:

Section headings should be numbered sequentially, left aligned and have the first letter capitalized, starting with the introduction. Sub-section headings however, should be in lower-case and italicized with their initials capitalized. They should be numbered as 1.1, 1.2, etc.

INTRODUCTION:

The Introduction section should include the background and aims of the research in a comprehensive manner.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This section provides details of the methodology used along with information on any previous efforts with corresponding references. Any details for further modifications and research should be included.

EXPERIMENTAL:

Repeated information should not be reported in the text of an article. A calculation section must include experimental data, facts and practical development from a theoretical perspective.

RESULTS:

Results should be precise.

DISCUSSION:

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, and present reproducible procedure. Extensive citations and discussion of published literature should be avoided.

The Results and discussions may be presented individually or combined in a single section with short and informative headings.

CONCLUSION:

A small paragraph summarizing the contents of the article, presenting the final outcome of the research or proposing further study on the subject, may be given at the end of the article under the Conclusion section.

Symbols and Units:

Greek symbols and special characters often undergo formatting changes and get corrupted or lost during preparation of a manuscript for publication. To ensure that all special characters used are embedded in the text, these special characters should be inserted as a symbol but should not be a result of any format styling (Symbol font face) otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF/XML2.

Authors are encouraged to consult reporting guidelines. These guidelines provide a set of recommendations comprising a list of items relevant to their specific research design.

Only ISO symbols, written in italic, should be used for the various parameters. All kinds of measurements should be reported only in International System of Units (SI). SI units should always be written in roman and separated from the numerical value by a space (whatever the language). The µ in µg or µm should be in roman. The symbol for liter is L and that for minute is min. For temperatures, please note the use of °C and °F but K. As the Ångström (1 Å = 10-10 m) is not an SI unit, it should be replaced by the nanometer (1 nm = 10-9 m) or by the picometer (1 pm = 10-12 m): 1 Å = 0.1 nm = 100 pm. Multiple units should be written with negative superscripts (for example, 25 mguL-1us-1). The list of notations should appear just before the first paragraph of full text.

A list of symbols and units should be provided if used extensively throughout the text.

Mathematical Material:

The following guidelines for using units should be observed.

  1. The number (numeral) should be separated from the unit followed by a full space, e.g., 1.8 MeV.
  2. The units should have a single form for both singular and plural, i.e., 1.0 cm and 2.7 cm.
  3. The symbols for units should be printed in lower-case roman type without periods. Units derived from proper names, however, should be abbreviated with initial capital letters, i.e., coulomb (C), Weber (Wb).
  4. The abbreviated form of a unit must be used after a number given in numerals: 1 cm (not 1 centimeter) but the unit should be written out in cases like “a few centimeters.”
  5. Decimal multiples of units should be indicated by the use of prefixes. The combination of prefix and unit symbol is treated as a single symbol. For instance, such a combination can be raised to a power, i.e., cm2. Compound units should be written as 1 g cm2 or g cm2 s-2, with a thin space between unit parts. Avoid ambiguous compound units, e.g., 6 J/cm3/s. Write instead, for example, 6 J cm-3 s-1.
Mathematical Symbols:

Mathematical symbols must be defined immediately where they are introduced.

Characters:
Character fonts:

The italic font should be used for mathematical symbols (this is the default font in TeX/LaTeX is math mode). In addition to variables and constants, the italic font should be used for particle symbols, symbols of quantum states, and group-theoretic designations.

Diacritical signs:

A diacritical sign is a marking placed directly above or below symbols, e.g., the arrow in .

Subscripts and superscripts:

All available characters can be used as subscripts or superscripts. Position of a subscript or superscript is dictated by standard notation.

Examples:

Abbreviations in math:

Some abbreviations, such as those for mathematical functions and those used in superscripts or subscripts require special handling and are discussed below.

Abbreviations designating mathematical functions:
  • Roman multiletter abbreviations must be closed up to the argument following and separated from any preceding symbol by a thin space, that is,
  • To treat a function of a function enclose it in bold round parentheses, i.e.,
    g(f(x))
  • e and exp (for exponent) notation
    The e form is appropriate when the argument is short and simple, i.e., eik·r, whereas exp should be used if the argument is more complicated.
Equation breaking (multilinear equations):

Mathematical expressions often need to be displayed on two or more lines (“broken”)

The best place for a break is just before an operator or sign of relation. These signs should begin the next line of the equation.

Equation numbering:

A principal equation and subordinate equations may be numbered (1), (1a), (1b), etc.

Bracketing and Grouping sequence:

For the purpose of grouping, the sequence of bracketing preferred is {[()]}, working outwards in sets ( ), [ ], and {}.

{ [ ( { [ ( ) ] } ) ] }

Limits and indices:

In text, however, space limitations require that single limit sums or integrals use subscripts and superscripts, for example,

Fractions:

Fractions can be “built up” with a fraction bar, , “slashed” with a solidus, (a + b)/c, or written with a negative exponent, (a + b)c-1. In text all fractions must be either slashed or written with a negative exponent.

Multiplication signs:

The primary use of the multiplication sign is to indicate a vector product of three-vectors (e.g., k x A). Do not use it to express a simple product.

The center dot (·) should not be used to mean a simple product. Use the dot to represent inner products of vectors (k · r).

Mathematical terms:

The use of the following standard symbols is recommended.

List of Abbreviations (if any):

If abbreviations are used in the text either they should be defined in the text where first used, or a list of abbreviations can be provided.

Consent for Publication:

If the manuscript has an individuals’ data, such as personal detail, audio-video material etc., consent should be obtained from that individual. In case of children, consent should be obtained from the parent or the legal guardian.

All such case reports should be followed by a proper consent prior to publishing.

A specific declaration of such approval and consent-to-disclose form must be made in the copyright letter and in a stand-alone paragraph at the end of the article especially in the case of human studies where inclusion of a statement regarding obtaining the written informed consent from each subject or subject's guardian is a must. The original should be retained by the guarantor or corresponding author. Editors may request to provide the original forms by fax or email.

Glossary:

A glossary of terms/expressions used in the paper should be provided in the order of their appearance in the article.

Conflict of Interest:

Financial contributions and any potential conflict of interest must be clearly acknowledged under the heading ‘Conflict of Interest’. Authors must list the source(s) of funding for the study. This should be done for each author.

Acknowledgements:

All individuals listed as authors must have contributed substantially to the design, performance, analysis, or reporting of the work and are required to indicate their specific contribution. Anyone (individual/company/institution) who has substantially contributed to the study for important intellectual content, or was involved in the in drafting or revising the manuscript must also be acknowledged.

Guest or honorary authorship based solely on position (e.g. research supervisor, departmental head) is discouraged.

References:

References must be listed in IEEE style only. All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section. The reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.

The author will be responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the references.

See below few examples of references listed in the correct IEEE style:

Journal Articles:
  • [1]  G. Liu, K. Y. Lee, and H. F. Jordan, "TDM and TWDM de Bruijn networks and shufflenets for optical communications", IEEE Trans. Comp., vol. 46, pp. 695-701, June 1997.
Books:
  • [2]  S. M. Hemmingsen, Soft Science. University of Saskatchewan Press: Saskatoon, 1997.
  • [3]  A. Rezi, and M. Allam, "Techniques in Array Processing by Means of Transformations," In: Control and Dynamic Systems, Vol. 69, Multidimensional Systems, C. T. Leondes, Ed. Academic Press: San Diego, 1995, pp. 133-180.
Edited Book:
  • [4]  D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1996.
Conference Proceedings:
  • [5]  N. Osifchin, and G. Vau, Power considerations for the modernization of telecommunications in Central and Eastern European and former Soviet Union (CCE/FSU) countries, Second International Telecommunication Energy Special Conference Special Conference, 1997, pp. 9-16.
Patent:
  • [6]  K. Kimura and A. Lipeles, "Fuzzy Controller Component," U. S. Patent 14,860,040, December 14, 1996.
Thesis:
  • [7]  H. Zhang, "Delay-insensitive Networks", M.S. thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 1997.
Electronic Publication:
E-Books:
  • [8]  L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman. Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003. [E book] Available: Safari e-book.
E-Journals:
  • [9]  P. H. C. Eilers, and J. J. Goeman, "Enhancing scatterplots with smoothed densities", Bioinformatics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 623-628, March 2004. [Online] Available: http://www.oxfordjournals.org [Accessed Sept. 18, 2004].
E-citations:
  • [10]  Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or in open access (free-to-view) , must contain the exact Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially essential, e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.

Some important points to remember:

  • All references must be complete and accurate.
  • Online citations should include the date of access.
  • Journal titles should conform to the IEEE Transactions, Journals and Letters abbreviations.
  • If the number of authors exceeds six then et al will be used after three names (the term “et al.” should be in italics)
  • Take special care of the punctuation convention as described in the above-mentioned examples.
  • Avoid using superscript in the in-text citations and reference section.
  • Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.
  • The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.

Appendices:

In case there is a need to present lengthy, but essential methodological details, use appendices, which can be a part of the article. An appendix must not exceed three pages (Times New Roman, 10 point fonts, 900 max. words per page).The information should be provided in a condensed form, ruling out the need of full sentences. A single appendix should be titled APPENDIX, while more than one can be titled APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, and so on.

Figures/Illustrations (if any):

All authors must strictly follow the guidelines below for preparing illustrations for publication in The Open Transportation Journal. If the figures are found to be sub-standard, then the manuscripts will be rejected.

The authors are expected to submit good quality figure(s) in PDF, PPT, MS Word, TIFF or JPEG versions, which, if required, should be improved yourself or by professional graphic designers of your organization/ country. You may even consider approaching our contracted service providers Eureka Science for Graphics Enhancement Services.

The Graphics Designing team at Eureka Science can assist in improving the quality of your images at affordable rates. Eureka Science has contracted special rates with us of US $125 for the improvement of up to five figures, with any additional figures being charged at US $20 each.

The quality of Graphic Enhancement Services offered by Eureka Science can be viewed at http://www.eureka-science.com/images/Binder1.pdf, along with valuable feedback on their services at http://www.eureka-science.com/testimonials.php. You may contact Eureka Science at info@eureka-science.com

Note: Availing Graphics Enhancement Services do not guarantee acceptance of the manuscript for publication. The final acceptance/decision on the manuscript is taken by the EiC.

Guideline for Figures/Illustrations

Illustrations must be provided according to the following guideline:

  • Illustrations should be embedded in the text file, and must be numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include only a single illustration which should be cropped to minimize the amount of space occupied by the illustration.
  • If a figure is in separate parts, all parts of the figure must be provided in a single composite illustration file.
  • Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files.

Scaling/Resolution:

For Line Art image type, which is generally an image based on lines and text and does not contain tonal or shaded areas, the preferred file format is TIFF or EPS, with colour mode being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a resolution of 900-1200 dpi.

For Halftone image type, which is generally a continuous tone photograph and contains no text, the preferred file format is TIFF, with colour mode being or RGB or Grayscale, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

For Combination image type, which is generally an image containing halftone in addition to text or line art elements, the preferred file format is TIFF, with colour mode being or RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.

Formats:

For illustrations, the following file formats are acceptable:

  • Illustrator
  • EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
  • PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
  • PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
  • Microsoft Word (version 5 and above; figures must be a single page)
  • PowerPoint (figures must be a single page)
  • TIFF
  • JPEG (conversion should be done using the original file)
  • BMP
  • CDX (ChemDraw)
  • TGF (ISISDraw)

Bentham OPEN does not process figures submitted in GIF format.

For TIFF or EPS figures with considerably large file size restricting the file size in online submissions is advisable. Authors may therefore convert to JPEG format before submission as this results in significantly reduced file size and upload time, while retaining acceptable quality. JPEG is a lossy format. However, in order to maintain acceptable image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are saved at High or Maximum quality.

Zipit or Stuffit tools should not be used to compress files prior to submission as the resulting compression through these tools is always negligible.

Please refrain from supplying:

  1. Graphics embedded in word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document.
  2. Optimized files optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) because of the low resolution.
  3. Files with too low a resolution.
  4. Graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Technical requirements for graphic/ figure submissions.

Requirement
Width = 8.5 inches (In-between the required size)
Height = 11 inches (In-between the required size)
Pixels/Inches = 300 (minimum dpi)
All figures should be in vector scale (except half tone, photograph.)

Image Conversion Tools

There are many software packages, many of them freeware or shareware, capable of converting to and from different graphics formats, including PNG.

Good general tools for image conversion include GraphicConverter on the Macintosh, PaintShop Pro, for Windows, and ImageMagick, which is available on Macintosh, Windows and UNIX platforms.

Note that bitmap images (e.g. screenshots) should not be converted to EPS, since this will result in a much larger file size than the equivalent JPEG, TIFF, PNG or BMP, with no increase in the quality. EPS should only be used for images produced by vector-drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. Most vector-drawing applications can be saved in, or exported as, EPS format. In case the images have been originally prepared in an Office application, such as Word or PowerPoint, then the original Office files should be directly uploaded to the site, instead of being converted to JPEG or another format that may be of low quality.

Tables (if any):

  • Data Tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table format.
  • Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory in itself with respect to the details discussed in the table. Detailed legends may then follow.
  • Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1, should follow a title. The title should be in small case with the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at the end of the title.
  • Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according to their appropriate placement in the submitted manuscript.
  • Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as black lines.
  • Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially in order of their citation in the body of the text.
  • If a reference is cited in both the table and text, please insert a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered reference in the text.
  • Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet.

Supportive/ supplementary material (if any):

We do encourage to append supportive material, for example a PowerPoint file containing a talk about the study, a PowerPoint file containing additional screenshots, a Word, RTF, or PDF document showing the original instrument(s) used, a video, or the original data (SAS/SPSS files, Excel files, Access Db files etc.) provided it is inevitable or endorsed by the journal's Editor.

Supportive/Supplementary Material intended for publication must be numbered and referred to in the manuscript but should not be a part of the submitted paper. In-text citations as well as a section with the heading "Supportive/Supplementary Material" before the "References" section should be provided. Here, list all Supportive/Supplementary Material and include a brief caption line for each file describing its contents.

Any additional files will be linked into the final published article in the form supplied by the author, but will not be displayed within the paper. They will be made available in exactly the same form as originally provided only on our Web site. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet). Supportive/Supplementary material must be provided in a single zipped file not larger than 4 MB.

Authors must clearly indicate if these files are not for publication but meant for the reviewers'/editors' perusal only.

PERMISSION FOR REPRODUCTION:

Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained written permission from the copyright holder, which should be forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article for publication.

For obtaining permission for reproducing any material published in an article by Bentham OPEN, please fill in the request FORM and send to info@benthamopen.com for consideration.

AUTHORS AND INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATIONS:

The names of the authors should be provided according to the previous citations or as the authors would want them to be published along with the institutional affiliations, current address, telephone, cell & fax numbers and the email address. Email address must be provided with an asterisk in front of the name of the principal author. The corresponding author(s) should be designated and their complete address, business telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address must be stated to receive correspondence and galley proofs. Also it is suggested to regularly update the profile on SCOPUS and other databases.

REVIEWING AND PROMPTNESS OF PUBLICATION:

All papers submitted for publication are immediately subjected to preliminary editorial scrutiny by the Editor-in-Chief regarding their suitability. The Editor-in-Chief determines if the manuscript:

(a) falls within the scope of the journal and

(b) meets the editorial criteria of Bentham Open Publishers in terms of originality and quality.

Manuscripts that appear to be suitable are then subjected to single-blind peer-review by, usually three, neutral eminent experts. The services of eminent international experts are sought through invitations to conduct the peer-review of a submitted manuscript, keeping in view the scope of the manuscript and the expertise of the reviewers. The identity of the reviewers is not disclosed to the authors. The anonymity of reviewers ensures objective and unbiased assessment of the manuscript by the reviewers.

Before sending the manuscripts to reviewers, Bentham Open seeks consent from potential reviewers about their availability and willingness to review. Correspondence between the editorial office of the journal and the reviewers is kept confidential. The reviewers are expected to provide their reports in a timely fashion since a prompt review leads to timely publication of a manuscript which is beneficial not only to the authors but to the scientific community as well.

The editorial process and peer-review workflow for each journal are taken care of by a team of Senior Editors, Editorial Board Members (EBMs) and dedicated Journal managers who have the required expertise in their specific fields.

The Editor-in-Chief may recommend the acceptance or rejection of a manuscript after considering the opinions of the independent referees, or he/she may take assistance and advice from other experts in the field, if needed.

The Editor-in-Chief and Senior Editors of a journal have the right to select reviewers for a particular manuscript considering the knowledge and experience of the reviewers.

After reviewing of the manuscript by at least two independent experts, in addition to the assessment of the Editor, the decision is relayed to the authors, which may be categorized as:

  • Accept without changes
  • Revisions Required
  • Reject

Bentham Open requests not to have the manuscripts peer-reviewed by those experts who may have competing interest with the author(s) of a submitted manuscript. It is not possible for Editors to be aware of all competing interests; it is therefore expected that the reviewers would inform the Editor-in-Chief/Handling Editor if they notice any potential competing interest during the course of review of a manuscript. Moreover, the reviewers are expected to inform the Editors or editorial office of the journal if they have a conflict of interest in carrying out the review of a manuscript submitted by any author/contributor of the manuscript.

Papers which are delayed by the authors in revision for more than 30 days are required to be re-submitted as a new submission. Papers accepted for publication are typeset and proofs are dispatched to authors for any corrections prior to final publication.

LANGUAGE AND EDITING:

Manuscripts containing language inconsistencies will not be published. Authors should seek professional assistance for correction of grammatical, scientific and typographical errors before submission of the revised version of the article for publication. Professional editing services may also be sought by the team available at Bentham Open.

PROOF CORRECTIONS:

Authors are required to proofread the PDF versions of their manuscripts before submission. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately for typographical errors and returned within 48 hours. Major changes are not acceptable at the proof stage. If unable to send corrections within 48 hours due to some reason, the author(s) must at least send an acknowledgement on receiving the galley proofs or the article will be published exactly as received and the publishers will not be responsible for any error occurring in the manuscript in this regard.

The corresponding author will be solely responsible for ensuring that the revised version of the manuscript incorporating all the submitted corrections receives the approval of all the authors of the manuscript.

COPYRIGHT:

Authors who publish in Bentham OPEN Journals retain copyright to their work. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. Once submitted to the journal, the author may not withdraw their manuscript at any stage prior to publication.

Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits the copying and redistribution of the material in any medium or format, as well as remixing, transformation, and building upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided appropriate credit is given, a link to the licence is provided, and provided it is indicated if any changes were made.

CHANGES TO AUTHORSHIP:

Authors must provide a final list of authors at the time of submission, ensuring the correct sequence of the names of authors, which will not be considered for any addition, deletion or rearrangement after final submission of the manuscript. If a change is essentially required, it can only be done on Editor’s approval, for which the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author:

(a) the reason for change in the author list and the sequence

(b) a confirmation is a prerequisite from all the co-authors for any amendment or removal.

Any amendment to the authors list will only be considered by the Editor if it is a MUST. Publication of the manuscript will be withheld during consideration of the request. However, if the manuscript has already been published online, requests approved thereafter by the Editor will result in an erratum or corrigendum.

APPEALS AND COMPLAINTS:

Generally, the editorial decisions are not reverted. However, authors who think that their manuscript was rejected due to a misunderstanding or mistake may seek an explanation for the decision. Appeals must give sound reasoning and compelling evidence against the criticism raised in the rejection letter. A difference of opinion as to the interest, novelty, or suitability of the manuscript for the journal will not be considered as an appeal. The EIC and other relevant editors will consider the appeal and the decision thereafter taken by the journal will be deemed final. Acceptance of the manuscript is not guaranteed even if the journal agrees to reconsider the manuscript, and the reconsideration process may involve previous or new reviewers or editors and substantive revision.

Authors who wish to make a complaint should refer them to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal concerned. Complaints to the Publisher may be emailed to info@benthamopen.com

PLAGIARISM PREVENTION:

Bentham OPEN uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. iThenticate software checks content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and a comprehensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting the percentage overlap between the uploaded article and the published material. Any instance of content overlap is further scrutinized for suspected plagiarism according to the publisher’s Editorial Policies. Bentham OPEN allows an overall similarity of 20% for a manuscript to be considered for publication. The similarity percentage is further checked keeping the following important points in view:

Low Text Similarity:

The text of every submitted manuscript is checked using the Content Tracking mode in iThenticate. The Content Tracking mode ensures that manuscripts with an overall low percentage similarity (but which may have a higher similarity from a single source) are not overlooked. The acceptable limit for similarity of text from a single source is 5%. If the similarity level is above 5%, the manuscript is returned to the author for paraphrasing the text and citing the original source of the copied material.

It is important to mention that the text taken from different sources with an overall low similarity percentage will be considered as a plagiarized content if the majority of the article is a combination of copied material.

High Text Similarity:

There may be some manuscripts with an overall low similarity percentage, but a higher percentage from a single source. A manuscript may have less than 20% overall similarity but there may be 15 % similar text taken from a single article. The similarity index in such cases is higher than the approved limit for a single source. Authors are advised to thoroughly rephrase the similar text and properly cite the original source to avoid plagiarism and copyright violation.

TYPES OF PLAGIARISM:

We all know that scholarly manuscripts are written after thorough review of previously published articles. It is therefore not easy to draw a clear boundary between legitimate representation and plagiarism. However, the following important features can assist in identifying different kinds of plagiarized content.

These are:

  • Reproduction of others words, sentences, ideas or findings as one’s own without proper acknowledgement.
  • Text recycling, also known as self-plagiarism. It is an author’s use of a previous publication in another paper without proper citation and acknowledgement of the original source.
  • Paraphrasing poorly: Copying complete paragraphs and modifying a few words without changing the structure of original sentences or changing the sentence structure but not the words.
  • Verbatim copying of text without putting quotation marks and not acknowledging the work of the original author.
  • Properly citing a work but poorly paraphrasing the original text is considered as unintentional plagiarism. Similarly, manuscripts with language somewhere between paraphrasing and quoting are not acceptable. Authors should either paraphrase properly or quote and in both cases, cite the original source.
  • Higher similarity in the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, and discussion and conclusion sections indicates that the manuscript may contain plagiarized text. Authors can easily explain these parts of the manuscript in many ways. However, technical terms and sometimes standard procedures cannot be rephrased; therefore Editors must review these sections carefully before making a decision.

PLAGIARISM IN PUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS:

Published manuscripts which are found to contain plagiarized text are retracted from the journal website after careful investigation and approval by the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. A ‘Retraction Note’ as well as a link to the original article is published on the electronic version of the plagiarized manuscript and an addendum with retraction notification in the journal concerned.

PUBLICATION FEES:

The publication fee details for each article published in the journal are given below:

Research Articles:

The publication fee for each published Research article is US $925.

Review Articles:

The publication fee for each published Review article is US $1,030.

Mini-Review Articles:

The publication fee for each published Mini Review article is US $715.

Letters:

The publication fee for each published Letter article / short communication submitted is US $715.

The publication fee includes the professional copy editing charges. Once the paper is accepted for publication, the author will receive an electronic invoice via email. Subsequent submissions from the Bentham OPEN Authors will receive a discount of US$ 100 on the total publication charges providing their previous submission did not avail any discount off the listed full author open access fee rate. Please click here to download the FeeForm.

Quick Track Publication:

An optional fast publication fee-based service called “QUICK TRACK” is available to authors for their submitted manuscripts.

QUICK TRACK allows online publication within 1 week of receipt of the final approved galley proofs from the authors. The total publication time, from date of first receipt of manuscript to its online publication is only 6 weeks, subject to its acceptance by the referees and modification (if any) by the authors within one week.

Authors who have availed QUICK TRACK services in a Bentham Open journal will be entitled for an exclusive 30% discount if they again wish to avail the same services in any Bentham Open journal within the next 12 months.

For more information please contact the Editorial Office by e-mail at quicktrack@benthamopen.com

Special Fee Waiver:

Bentham OPEN allows Special FEE Waiver to authors from 79 countries which are classified by the World Bank as low-income economies or lower-middle-income economies. Refer to the complete list of these countries click here.

MEMBERSHIP:

Join as a member of Bentham OPEN today to obtain great discounts on your article publication fees! For details click here.

REPRINTS:

High quality printed reprints of published articles are available for purchase, if ordered, with a minimum number of 25 reprints.