Analysis on Public’s Response Toward Bus Reform Policy in Indonesia Considering Latent Variables

Sofyan M. Saleh, Sugiarto Sugiarto*, Renni Anggraini
Department of Civil Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jl. Tgk. Syech Abdul Rauf No. 7, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia

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© 2019 Saleh et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Civil Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Jl. Tgk. Syech Abdul Rauf No. 7, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia; E-mail:



Public Transport (PT) is commonly recognized as a valid transport policy to reduce car and motorcycle users in many developing countries. In emerging countries such as Indonesia, a city like Banda Aceh has not run-away from the influences of impecunious public transportation services such as insufficient quality of services. The need for public transport reforms in achieving efficiency and sufficiency is under consideration by the Government as a way to mitigate severe private mode dependency. Therefore, Stated Preference (SP) survey was conducted in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, where the so-called bus reform policy Trans Koetaradja runs under trial as a case study. This investigation looks at Banda Aceh citizens’ intentions to Trans Koetaradja bus reform policy in terms of the public approval.


The questionnaires were distributed to the public within three lines of Trans Koetaradja. Utilizing psychometric data collected from SP survey, we construct four factors representing psychological determinants (i.e., appropriateness of the policy, private mode dependency, the consciousness of problem private mode in society, and inhibition of freedom of movements). Due to the characteristics of the methods for evaluating public’ intentions, we retain that this kind of unobserved variable analysis could be accomplished by applying multivariate latent variable modeling.


This work aims to propose a Structural Equation Modeling of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (SEM-CFA) for analyzing the effects of citizens intents related to subjective an individuals’ indicators on the psychological factors that might abridge the judgments about numerous characteristics towards the bus reform policy.


The empirical findings show that some latent factors offer explanatory power for bus reform policy acceptance. Latent variables, including “perceived appropriateness of the policy” and “awareness of problem private mode in society” appear to be the most significant direct causes leading to the acknowledgment of the effect of the acceptance of the proposed policy.


However, the effect of latent variables of “private mode dependency” and “inhibition of freedom of movement/less accessibility of the bus” reveals negative determinants to the acceptance of the policy.

Keywords: SEM-CFA, Psychological factors, Confirmatory factor analysis, Bus reform, Banda Aceh, Public transport.