High-Occupancy Vehicle Lane Enforcement System

Jinhwan Jang1, *
Highway Research Division, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea

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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Jinhwan Jang.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Highway Research Division, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, 283 Goyangdae-Ro, Illsanseo-Gu, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 411-712, Republic of Korea; E-mail:



An automatic High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane enforcement system is developed and evaluated. Current manual enforcement practices by the police bring about safety concerns and unnecessary traffic delays. Only vehicles with more than five passengers are permitted to use HOV lanes on freeways in Korea. Hence, detecting the number of passengers in HOVs is a core element for their development.


For a quick detection capability, a YOLO-based passenger detection model was built. The system comprises three infrared cameras: two are for compartment detection and the other is for number plate recognition. Multiple infrared illuminations with the same frequency as the cameras and laser sensors for vehicle detection and speed measurement are also employed.


The performance of the developed system is evaluated with real-world data collected on proving ground. As a result, it showed a passenger detection error of nine percent on average. The performances revealed no difference in vehicle speeds and the number of passengers according to ANOVA tests.


Using the developed system, more efficient and safer HOV lane enforcement practices can be made.

Keywords: High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane, Enforcement, Infrared camera, YOLO, Passenger detection, Passengers.