Evaluating Sustainable Transport Indicators for Metropolitan Areas in Developing Countries: The Case of Greater Jakarta

Alfa Adib Ash Shiddiqi1, *, Dwita Sutjiningsih2, Tri Tjahjono2, Linda Darmajanti3, Gede B. Suprayoga4
1 School of Environment, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
2 Department of Civil Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
3 Department of Sociology, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
4 Directorate General of Highways, Ministry of Public Works and Housing, Jakarta, Indonesia

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© 2022 Shiddiqi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Environment, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia; Tel: +6281219200064; E-mail:



Sustainable transport is fundamental to progress in realising the agenda of sustainable development, as a quarter of energy-related global greenhouse gas emissions come from the transport sector. In developing countries, metropolitan areas have adopted the agenda to better serve the urban population with safe, affordable, and environmentally-friendly transport systems. However, this drive must include relevant indicators and how their operationalisation can deal with institutional barriers, such as challenges to cross-sectoral coordination.


This study aims to explore context-specific indicators for developing countries, focusing on the case of the Jakarta metropolitan area.


Expert judgement was used to assess the selection criteria. The participants were experts from government institutions, non-government organisations, and universities.


The findings show that safety, public transport quality, transport cost, air pollution, and accessibility are contextual indicators for application in developing countries. Similarities are shown with the research results from other indexes/sets of indicators for developing countries, for example, the Sustainable Urban Transport Index (SUTI) of UN ESCAP. However, some of these indicators leave room for improvement, such as the balance between strategic and operational levels of application.


Therefore, this research suggests that global sets of indicators should be adjusted before being implemented in particular developing country contexts.

Keywords: Sustainable transport indicators, Developing countries, Expert judgement, Context-specific, Metropolitan, Jakarta, Global policy.