Understanding Gender, Income and Travel Behavior in Casablanca City – Morocco

Zineb Chamseddine1, *, Asmaa Ait Boubkr1
1 Applied Modeling in Economics and Management Laboratory, University of Hassan II Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco

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© 2021 Chamseddine and Ait Boubkr

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Applied Modeling in Economics and Management Laboratory, University of Hassan II Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco; Tel: +212661561102; E-mail:



The purpose of this paper is to extend the research on gendered differences in travel behavior in developing countries by analyzing travel behavior variability within as well as across gender and income groups in the case of Casablanca city.


Data from the 2018 Casablanca Travel Survey show that overall, women are less mobile than men, make fewer work-related trips and more household maintenance trips, but these differences are heterogeneously distributed across income groups. With the increase in income, women tend to carry out more trips than men; the inverse is observed for the middle- and low-income categories.


While for the lowest income groups, walking is the most predominant mode for both men and women, we notice that the private car has the highest modal share within the highest income groups as with the increase in household income, both genders avoid non-motorized transport modes. The particular status of women in some households as breadwinners and reproducers as well as the socio-cultural context of the city shape their mobility and the choice of their activities.


Hence, these findings suggest, from a policy perspective, that the public transit system along with spatial planning strategies need to be improved to help overcome women's mobility constraints, especially when they belong to low-income households so they can fully access the city amenities and opportunities. On the other hand, transport policies need to be not only gender-sensitive but also “vulnerable groups” sensitive as mobility impediments are similarly experienced by males and females in some contexts.

Keywords: Travel behavior, Public transit system, Gender, Income, Motorized transport, Mobility.